List the Layers of OSI Model?
Application Layer, Presentation Layer, Session Layer, Transport Layer, Network Layer, Data Link Layer, Physical Layer.
What are the Functions of Transport, Network and Data Link Layer?
1.It segments and reassemble data from upper-layer applications and combine it into the same data stream.
2.It provides end-to-end data transport services.
3.Establishes logical connection between the sending host and destination host on an internetwork.
4.It ensures Data integrity at the Transport layer by maintaining flow control.
1.The Network layer (layer 3) manages device addressing.
2.It tracks the location of devices on the network.
3.It determines the best way to move data between devices that are not locally attached.
4.Routers Functions at the Network layer to provide the routing services within an internetwork.
Data link layer
1.The Data Link layer is responsible for physical transmission of the data.
2.It handles error notification, flow control.
3.Data Link layer ensures that messages are delivered to the proper device on a LAN using mac addresses.
4.It translates messages from the Network layer into bits for the Physical layer to transmit.
5.The Data Link layer formats the message into data frame, and adds a customized header containing the hardware destination and source address.
Which Layer is responsible for Reliable connection?
What are the different protocols works at each of the layers of OSI Model?
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line), Universal Serial Bus, Bluetooth, Controller Area Network, Ethernet.
Data Link layer
Spanning Tree Protocol, VLan Trunking Protocol, Dynamic Trunking Protocol, HDLC, PPP, Frame Relay, Token Ring.
ICMP, IGMP, IPV4, IPV6, IPSEC, OSPF, EIGRP, RIP, BGP.
TCP, UDP, GRE.
NFS (Network File System).
Data encryption/decryption, Data compression, Data Conversion Protocols
DNS, DHCP, FTP, HTTP, NTP, SNMP, SMP, TELNET, TFTP, SSH.
What is a port number and give some examples?
TCP & UDP must use port numbers to communicate with upper layers because these are what keep track of different conversations crossing the network simultaneously.
|DHCP|| 67 (DHCP Server)
68 (DHCP Client)
What is the Range Of Port Numbers ?
Well Known Ports - 0 to 1023
Registered Ports - 1024 to 49151
Open Ports - 49152 to 65535
What is a Protocol Number and give some examples?
In IPV4 There is a Field called Protocol to identify the Next Level Protocol. In IPV6 this Field is called "Next Header" Field.
Define Unicast, Multicast and Broadcast?
Broadcast is the term used to describe communication where a piece of information is sent to all nodes on the network.
Multicast is the term used to describe communication where a piece of information is sent from a single source and transmitted to many devices but not all devices.
Unicast is the term used to describe communication where a piece of information is sent to a single destination host.
What is the difference between Half-duplex and Full-duplex?
Half Duplex - Data can Flow in both Direction but not simultaneously. At a time Data can flow only in one direction Example - HUB.
Full Duplex - Data can Flow in both Direction Simultaneously Example - Switch.
What is the MAC format?
It is a 12 Digits 48 Bit (6 Byte) Hardware address written in Hexadecimal Format.
It Consists of two parts -
The First 24 Bits OUI (Organizationally Unique Identifier) is assigned by IEEE.
The Last 24 Bits is Manufacturer-assigned Code.
What is a Frame?
The Data Link layer formats the message into pieces, each called a data frame, and adds a customized header containing the hardware source and destination address.
What is TCP/IP Model?
TCP/IP is four layer standard model.
The four layers of TCP/IP model are Application layer, Transport layer, Internet layer, Network access layer
What are the protocols that are included by each layer of TCP/IP model?
|Layers of TCP/IP model||Protocols|
|Application Layer||DNS, DHCP, FTP, TFTP, SMTP, HTTP, Telnet, SSH|
|Transport Layer||TCP, UDP|
|Internet layer Layer||IP, ICMP, IGMP|
|Network access layer||Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, X.25, Frame Relay, ARP, RARP|